Allen & Roth Patio Furniture

Allen & Roth Patio Furniture

The Allen area was previously home to the Caddo, Comanche, and other indigenous peoples. The first immigrants from the United States and Europe arrived in the early 1840s. The town was established by the Houston and Central Texas Railroad and named in 1872 for Ebenezer Allen, a state politician and railroad promoter. The railroad allowed sale of crops across the country before they rotted, causing a shift from the previous cattle-based agriculture. On February 22, 1878, a gang led by Sam Bass committed in Allen what is said to be Texas’s first train robbery.
allen & roth patio furniture 1

Allen & Roth Patio Furniture

From 1908 through 1948, Allen was a stop along the Texas Traction Company’s interurban line from Denison to Dallas. Allen was a small town of a few hundred residents when it was incorporated in 1953. Since this time, it has grown dramatically due to the construction of U.S. Route 75, the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, and the development of nearby Dallas and Plano.
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Allen & Roth Patio Furniture

In 1992, Allen citizens approved the creation of the Allen Economic Development Corporation, which is funded by a 0.5% sales tax. According to the City’s 2014 Facts & Figures, the top employers in the city are:
allen & roth patio furniture 3

Allen & Roth Patio Furniture

A radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind that is captured by and held around a planet by that planet’s magnetic field. The Earth has two such belts and sometimes others may be temporarily created. The discovery of the belts is credited to James Van Allen, and as a result the Earth’s belts are known as the Van Allen belts. Earth’s two main belts extend from an altitude of about 1,000 to 60,000 kilometers above the surface in which region radiation levels vary. Most of the particles that form the belts are thought to come from solar wind and other particles by cosmic rays. By trapping the solar wind, the magnetic field deflects those energetic particles and protects the Earth’s atmosphere from destruction.
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Allen & Roth Patio Furniture

Allen is an affluent city in Collin County, Texas, a northern suburb of Dallas. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 84,246.
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Allen & Roth Patio Furniture

Discover Allen University We think it's your time to shine. We've created a unique college experience that will become your time to discover, your time to grow, your time to succeed. Explore our four baccalaureate degree programs, under which eight academic majors are offered, and the many ways we can help you succeed. Majors Financial Aid Apply Now
allen & roth patio furniture 6

Allen & Roth Patio Furniture

Discover Allen University We think it's your time to shine. We've created a unique college experience that will become your time to discover, your time to grow, your time to succeed. Explore our four baccalaureate degree programs, under which eight academic majors are offered, and the many ways we can help you succeed.
allen & roth patio furniture 7

Allen & Roth Patio Furniture

The belts are located in the inner region of the Earth’s magnetosphere. The belts trap energetic electrons and protons. Other nuclei, such as alpha particles, are less prevalent. The belts endanger satellites, which must have their sensitive components protected with adequate shielding if they spend significant time in that zone. In 2013, NASA reported that the Van Allen Probes had discovered a transient, third radiation belt, which was observed for four weeks until it was destroyed by a powerful, interplanetary shock wave from the Sun.
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The term Van Allen belts refers specifically to the radiation belts surrounding Earth; however, similar radiation belts have been discovered around other planets. The Sun does not support long-term radiation belts, as it lacks a stable, global, dipole field. The Earth’s atmosphere limits the belts’ particles to regions above 200–1,000 km, while the belts do not extend past 8 Earth radii RE. The belts are confined to a volume which extends about 65° on either side of the celestial equator.
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The inner Van Allen Belt extends typically from an altitude of 0.2 to 2 Earth radii (L values of 1 to 3) or 1,000 km (620 mi) to 6,000 km (3,700 mi) above the Earth. In certain cases when solar activity is stronger or in geographical areas such as the South Atlantic Anomaly, the inner boundary may decline to roughly 200 kilometers above the Earth’s surface. The inner belt contains high concentrations of electrons in the range of hundreds of keV and energetic protons with energies exceeding 100 MeV, trapped by the strong (relative to the outer belts) magnetic fields in the region.
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On March 2014, a pattern resembling ‘zebra stripes’ was observed in the radiation belts by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) onboard Van Allen Probes. The reason reported was that due to the tilt in Earth’s magnetic field axis, the planet’s rotation generated an oscillating, weak electric field that permeates through the entire inner radiation belt. It was later demonstrated that the zebra stripes were in fact an imprint of ionospheric winds on radiation belts.
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On February 28, 2013, a third radiation belt, consisting of high-energy ultrarelativistic charged particles, was reported to be discovered. In a news conference by NASA’s Van Allen Probe team, it was stated that this third belt is a product of mass coronal ejection from the Sun. It has been represented as a separate creation which splits the Outer Belt, like a knife, on its outer side, and exists separately as a storage container of particles for a month’s time, before merging once again with the Outer Belt.
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Regardless of the differences of the flux levels in the Inner and Outer Van Allen belts, the beta radiation levels would be dangerous to humans if they were exposed for an extended period of time. The Apollo missions minimised hazards for astronauts by sending spacecraft at high speeds through the thinner areas of the upper belts, bypassing inner belts completely.
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It is generally understood that the inner and outer Van Allen belts result from different processes. The inner belt, consisting mainly of energetic protons, is the product of the decay of so-called “albedo” neutrons which are themselves the result of cosmic ray collisions in the upper atmosphere. The outer belt consists mainly of electrons. They are injected from the geomagnetic tail following geomagnetic storms, and are subsequently energized through wave-particle interactions.
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A gap between the inner and outer Van Allen belts, sometimes called safe zone or safe slot, is caused by the Very Low Frequency (VLF) waves which scatter particles in pitch angle which results in the gain of particles to the atmosphere. Solar outbursts can pump particles into the gap but they drain again in a matter of days. The radio waves were originally thought to be generated by turbulence in the radiation belts, but recent work by James L. Green of the Goddard Space Flight Center comparing maps of lightning activity collected by the Microlab 1 spacecraft with data on radio waves in the radiation-belt gap from the IMAGE spacecraft suggests that they are actually generated by lightning within Earth’s atmosphere. The radio waves they generate strike the ionosphere at the correct angle to pass through only at high latitudes, where the lower ends of the gap approach the upper atmosphere. These results are still under scientific debate.
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High Voltage Orbiting Long Tether, or HiVOLT, is a concept proposed by Russian physicist V. V. Danilov and further refined by Robert P. Hoyt and Robert L. Forward for draining and removing the radiation fields of the Van Allen radiation belts that surround the Earth. A proposed configuration consists of a system of five 100 km long conducting tethers deployed from satellites, and charged to a large voltage. This would cause charged particles that encounter the tethers to have their pitch angle changed, thus over time dissolving the inner belts. Hoyt and Forward’s company, Tethers Unlimited, performed a preliminary analysis simulation in 2011, and produced a chart depicting a theoretical radiation flux reduction, to less than 1% of current levels within two months for the inner belts that threaten LEO objects.

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